TFMM provides a forum to the EMEP Centres, national experts, international organizations for scientific consideration and evaluation of activities regarding pollution assessment. MSC-E takes part in the work of the Task Force annually presenting the outcome of its studies on HMs and POPs and discussing a number of topics, particularly, fine spatial resolution modeling and country specific case studies on the assessment of HM pollution levels on national scale, development of global scale multi-pollutant modeling system (GLEMOS).
The EMEP Task Force on Measurements and Modelling (TFMM) held its 23rd meeting online in May 2022. During the meeting MSC-E provided participants with the information on research activities of the Centre in co-operation with national experts in the field of assessment of HM and POP pollution.
Mercury-related research activities were focused on the Arctic region. MSC-E participated in co-operative studies, which followed up the recent AMAP Hg Assessment 2021. Data products obtained in this work as a country-specific case study were used in the national Norwegian Mercury Assessment 2022. The results of the study, including analysis of spatial distribution of Hg pollution levels in Norway, long-term trends of Hg air concentration and deposition to the country and trends in biota, were presented at the TFMM meeting. It was shown that spatial distribution of Hg deposition fluxes over Norway generally corresponded to that of Hg concentrations in mosses. Besides, it was demonstrated that spatial distribution of Hg deposition to waters of North Atlantic and the Arctic well correlated with concentrations of Hg in fish. Finally, it was indicated that the reduction of Hg concentrations in fish during the recent decade is stronger than the decline of atmospheric deposition.
Evaluation of the effect of wildfires on heavy metal and POPs pollution levels was another research activity presented at the meeting. Four available wildfire databases were examined. Emissions of Pb and B(a)P from the wildfires in the EMEP region were estimated. Contributions of wildfire emissions to concentrations of Pb and B(a)P were simulated using the GLEMOS model. The modelled effect of wildfires on the pollution levels was validated via comparison with concentrations of wildfire tracers such as CO and PM2.5. It was shown that wildfires can significantly contribute to air concentrations of toxic pollutants in particular countries in certain months. Further steps in model assessment of the effects of wildfires on heavy metal and POP pollution levels were suggested.
Main focus in the research activities on POPs was directed to the PAHs. The activities included participation in the Eurodelta-Carb multi-model assessment of B(a)P and a case study of PAH pollution in Poland. Preliminary results on B(a)P of several modelling groups (EMEP/MSC-E, CEIMAT, INERIS, ENEA, FMI) and their evaluation against measurements were presented. Similarities and differences between the annual mean concentrations and intra-annual variations obtained by participated models and observed levels were examined.
Results of the second phase of the country-scale study of PAH levels in Poland were demonstrated. It was shown that updated national inventory of PAH emissions (reported to EMEP) allowed to improve model assessment of pollution for B(b)F and B(k)F. At the same time, for I(cd)P no improvement was obtained comparing to the previously used national emission inventory.
Special attention was also paid to the contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Current status of their monitoring, development of emission inventories and modelling approaches was presented. In particular, pilot model simulations of PBDE pollution, based on the expert estimates of emissions, reasonably well reproduced the observed levels and their long-term trends in the EMEP region. Further research and cooperation activities related to HM and POP pollution assessment were proposed.