Assessment of heavy metal transboundary pollution on global, regional and national scales
I. Ilyin, O. Rozovskaya, O.Travnikov (METEOROLOGICAL SYNTHESIZING CENTRE - EAST)
W.Aas and K.A. Pfafhuber (CHEMICAL CO-ORDINATING CENTRE)
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CHAPTER 1. INPUT INFORMATION FOR MODEL ASSESSMENT
Input information used for assessment of pollution levels in the EMEP region is summarized. The chapter contains short overview of meteorological conditions in 2016, anthropogenic and secondary emissions in the EMEP region, and results of global-sale modelling applied for generation of boundary concentrations.
CHAPTER 2. HEAVY METAL POLLUTION OF THE EMEP REGION IN 2016
Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in air and precipitation observed at the EMEP monitoring network are described. The model assessment results include patterns of air concentration and deposition of the considered heavy metals within the EMEP region in 2016, source-receptor relationships, contribution of various emission sectors, and estimates of ecosystem-specific deposition for evaluation of adverse effects. In addition, information on heavy metal pollution of the Arctic sector of the EMEP region is also presented.
CHAPTER 3. MODEL ASSESSMENT OF MERCURY POLLUTION
Assessment of Hg pollution is among priority tasks within the Convention. Results of collaborative work of MSC-E and the scientific community on evaluation of Hg pollution on global and regional scales are presented. The results include information on spatial patterns, source apportionment and sectoral composition of Hg deposition in various terrestrial and aquatic regions. In addition, the work on refinement of the Hg chemical scheme applied in the GLEMOS model was further continued. Chemical mechanism of Hg oxidation by Br was incorporated into the model and evaluated in test runs and comparison with measurements.
CHAPTER 4. COUNTRY‐SCALE POLLUTION ASSESSMENT (POLAND)
The Centre co-operates with Parties to the Convention in the framework of heavy metal pollution assessment on a country scale. This year a case study for Poland has been completed. The analysis of heavy metal pollution of the country includes model assessment of Cd air concentration and deposition levels with fine spatial resolution, evaluation of national anthropogenic emissions, source apportionment of Cd deposition to various provinces of the country including contribution of different emission sectors. A special attention is paid to assessment of Cd pollution of cities.
CHAPTER 5. COOPERATION AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION
Collaboration with subsidiary bodies to the Convention and other international organisations is an important part of the MSC-E activities. Results of MSC-E research and development activities as well as plans for future research were presented and discussed at the Task Force on Measurements and Modelling (TFMM) meeting. The Centre also contributed to the Task Force on Emission Inventories and Projections (TFEIP) with discussion on possible application of transport models for evaluation of reported emissions. New results of combined analysis of heavy metal pollution using both model estimates and measurements in mosses were presented to the Working Group on Effects (WGE). The Centre continued co-operation with other international organizations and programmes (the United Nations Environmental Programme, the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, Helsinki Commission etc.) to broaden dissemination of the scientific and policy oriented information generated within EMEP.
MAIN CHALLENGES AND DIRECTIONS OF FUTURE RESEARCH
Future directions of MSC‐E activities will be aimed at quality improvement of heavy metal pollution assessment in the EMEP region. Further development and evaluation of the GLEMOS model will include further testing of the Br oxidation mechanism, evaluation of possible reduction pathways and further development of the multi-media approach for Hg simulations. The country-scale case studies will be continued for a number of countries (e.g. Germany, the UK, Norway) with particular focus on Hg pollution and the link with adverse effects on human health and biota. Besides, evaluation of the direct fine resolution modelling for assessment of city pollution will be continued for other countries and pollutants.